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Social Protection

The five pillars of social security.

The German social security system provides support in emergencies or transitional phases, ensuring participation and integration. It stands on five central pillars: Pension insurance, health insurance, long-term care insurance, unemployment insurance and casualty insurance. Other key elements of the social safety net are employment stimulation, labour legislation and childcare benefits, rehabilitation of people with disabilities, housing benefits and social welfare.

Social security in a changing society

Modern societies are characterized by constant change. The workplace of the future requires different solutions than the ageing industrial society. Digitization demands more flexibility at work, increased qualification requirements and changing forms of employment. At the same time, technological progress offers enormous opportunities to face the challenges of the future, especially those caused by demographic change.
To maintain their role of protection and risk mitigation, social security systems must be continuously adapted to the current conditions. The social and economic challenges involved are enormous: questions of financing, distribution, security and quality of supply and participation in society must be answered.

The future of social security in Germany

Political decisions regarding social security require vision and precision.

  • Is the so-called Doppelte Haltelinie (“double threshold”) for pension levels fair for all generations?
  • How can the labour market be managed in an inclusive way?
  • What can innovative solutions contribute to securing health and nursing care provision?

The answers to these and other questions will determine the future of social security in Germany.

Social Protection: A selection of our services

Social security model OCCUR

We quantify the financial requirements and examine options for reforming social security using the OCCUR social security model.

Microsimulation model

With our microsimulation model, we can identify support requirements and distribution effects.

Conception & evaluation

We develop and evaluate supply plans and pilot projects.


As the social safety net in Germany is densely knit, we combine professional expertise from all of its subfields.

Our work on this topic

Take a look at our latest projects and activities.

Fernrohr mit Blick über einen See in der Schweiz.

Integration: Strengthen cooperation between districts, associated municipalities & cities


For the Robert Bosch Foundation, Prognos conducted a workshop with integration stakeholders from districts, municipalities, and cities.

Älterer Mann mit Gehstock läuft mit Pflegekraft auf der Wiese, am Rand steht ein Rollstuhl

Care Perspective. Reorientation of the elderly care profession


The annual expenditure of social long-term care insurance will continue to increase in the coming decades according to the results of a Prognos study for the Bertelsmann Foundation.


Germany Report 2025|2035|2045


Germany will become more global, more digital, greener and older in the next 30 years. This is shown by Prognos Deutschland Report from 2018/2019.

Menschen laufen auf einem Marktplatz

Calculation tool turns users into 'pension ministers'


What are the financial implications of possible changes in the pension system? With the virtual calculation tool ‘Pension Minister’ central levers of pension insurance can be operated.

Zwei Kolleginnen sitzen an einem Tisch und sprechen über ein Dokument.

Women & retirement provision


A stronger employment orientation for women can help to stabilise the public pension system – while also benefitting their own financial position in old age.

Projekte und Studien

Pension Perspectives 2040


How high the pensions will be for a typical employee depends, among other things, on the occupation and the place of residence. This is the result of recent research by Prognos for GDV.

Do you have questions?

Your contact at Prognos

Dr Oliver Ehrentraut

Head of the economics division, Partner, Director

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About us

Prognos – Providing Orientation.

Prognos is one of the oldest economic research centres in Europe. Founded at the University of Basel, Prognos experts have been conducting research for a wide range of clients from the public and private sectors since 1959 – politically independent, scientifically sound.

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